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In return, the natives would provide tributes in the form of metals, maize, wheat, pork, or other agricultural products.With the ouster of Christopher Columbus, the Spanish crown sent a royal governor, Fray Nicolás de Ovando, who established the formal encomienda system.Indigenous leaders were charged with mobilizing the assessed tribute and labor.In turn, encomenderos were to ensure the native people were given instruction in the Christian faith and Spanish language, and protect them from warring tribes or pirates; they had to suppress rebellion against Spaniards, and maintain infrastructure.Francisco Hernández Giron was a Spanish encomendero in the Viceroyalty of Peru who protested the New Laws in 1553.These laws, passed in 1542, gave certain rights to indigenous peoples and protected them against abuses.Both natives and Spaniards appealed to the Real Audiencias for relief under the encomienda system.Encomiendas had often been characterized by the geographical displacement of the enslaved and breakup of communities and family units, but in Mexico, the encomienda ruled the free vassals of the crown through existing community hierarchies, and the natives were allowed to keep in touch with their families and homes.

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Initially, the encomienda system was devised to meet the needs of the early agricultural economies in the Caribbean.Doña Maria Jaramillo, the daughter of Doña Marina and conqueror Juan Jaramillo, received income from her deceased father's encomiendas.Two of Moctezuma's daughters, Doña Isabel Moctezuma and her younger sister, Doña Leonor Moctezuma, were granted extensive encomiendas in perpetuity by Hernan Cortes.Conquered peoples were considered vassals of the Spanish monarch.

The Crown awarded an encomienda as a grant to a particular individual.

It was first established in Spain during the Roman period, but used also following the Christian reconquest of Muslim territory.